Ab’ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 CE) Hindi अमीर ख़ुसरौ, (Urdu: ابوالحسن یمینالدین خسرو;, better known as Amīr Khusraw (also Khusrow, Hazrat Khusrow, Ameer Khusru) Dehlawī (meaning Amir Khusrau of Delhi) (امیر خسرو دہلوی) was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar. He was an iconic figure in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. Amīr Khusrau is reputed to have invented certain musical instruments like the sitar and tabla. He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi. A vocabulary in verse, the Ḳhāliq Bārī, containing Arabic, Persian, and Hindavi terms is often attributed to him. KHUSRO surrounded by young men. Miniature from a manuscript of Majlis Al-Usshak by Husayn Bayqarah
He is regarded as the “father of Qawwali“ (a devotional music form of the Sufis in the Indian subcontinent), and introduced the ghazal style of song into India, both of which still exist widely in India and Pakistan. He is also credited with introducing Persian, Arabic and Turkish elements into Indian classical music and was the originator of the khayal and taranastyles of music.
Contributions to Music
The development of the Tabla originated from the need to have a drum that could be played from the top in the sitting position to enable more complex rhythm structure’s that were required for the new Indian Sufi vocal style of singing/chanting and Zikr. At the same time to complement the complex early Sitar melodies that Khusrau was composing. The Tabla uses a “complex finger tip and hand percussive” technique played from the top, unlike the Pakhawaj and mridangam which mainly use the full palm and are sideways in motion and are more limited in terms of sound complexity.